PM2.5

PM 2.5 คืออะไรและวิธีป้องกันยังไงได้บ้าง

PM2.5
ฝุ่น PM2.5

PM 2.5 คืออะไร และวิธีป้องกันยังไง

PM 2.5 ย่อมาจาก particulate matter ซึ่งเป็นหน่วยวัดขนาดของอนุภาคที่อยู่ในอากาศ PM2.5 คือ อนุภาคที่มีขนาดเล็กกว่า 2.5 ไมโครเมตร ซึ่งคุณอย่าได้ไปเรียบกับเส้นผมเด็ดขาด เพราะเส้นผมคนเรามีขนาด 50-70 ไมโครมตร ดังนั้นหากจะเทียบกับเส้นผม คงต้องบอกว่า เล็กกว่าขนาดเส้นผม 20-30 เท่า ซึ่งมันเล็กมากพอที่จะหายใจเข้าไปสู่ปอดและซึมเข้าสู่กระแสเลือด  หากสภาพอากาศมี PM2.5 เกินค่ามาตรฐาน คนกลุ่มแรกที่จะได้รับผลกกระทบโดยตรงคือเด็กเล็ก ผู้สูงอายุผู้ป่วยที่มีโรคของทางเดินหายใจ โรคปอดเรื้อรัง และโรคหัวใจ  องค์กรอนามัยโลก(WHO) กำหนดให้ PM2.5 จัดอยู่ในกลุ่มที่ 1 ของสารก่อมะเร็ง

ภาพฝุ่น PM 2.5
ภาพฝุ่น PM2.5

ฝุ่น PM2.5 เกิดจากอะไร  เกิดจากการเผาไหม้จากการเผาในที่โล่ง การจราจร โรงงานอุตสาหกรรม และกิจกรรมครัวเรือน ซึ่งฝุ่น PM2.5 สามารถลอยบนอากาศได้เป็นวันจนถึงหลายสัปดาห์และลอยไปจากแหล่งกำเนิดได้ประมาณ 100-1,000 กิโลเมตรโดยประมาณ

แหล่งกำเนิด PM 2.5
แหล่งกำเนิด PM2.5

ดังนั้นผลกระทบของผู้ที่สูด ดมอากาศที่ ฝุ่น PM2.5 เกินมาตรฐาน จะมีได้ทั้งสองแบบ คือ

แบบเฉียบพลัน

เห็นผลใน 1-2 วันซึ่งจะเกิดกับระบบทางเดินหายใจ คือ ไอ เจ็บคอ หายใจลำบาก มีเลือดกำเดาไหลซึ่งหากเลือดกำเดาไหลลงคอจะทำให้เสหะมีเลือดเจือปน หากเข้าตาจะทำให้เคืองตา มีอาการตาแดง หากโดนที่ผิวหนังจะทำให้มีอาการ คัน มีตุ่ม ผดผื่นได้

แบบเรื้อรัง

อาการจะค่อยๆสะสมแสดงผลในระยะยาว คือเส้นเลือดหัวใจตีบตันทำให้หัวใจวาย หัวใจเต้นผิดปกติ ทำให้เกิดอัมพาตหรือเสียชีวิต  และยังเป็นสาเหตุการก่อมะเร็งอีกทั้งยังเป็นอันตรายต่อคุณแม่ตั้งครรภ์ อาจทำให้เด็กคลอดก่อนกำหนด น้ำหนักน้อย ติดเชื้อง่าย และเป็นโรคออทิสซึ่มอีกโรคหนึ่งที่ควรตะหนักถึง ความอันตรายของฝุ่น PM 2.5 โรคถุงลมโปร่งพองสาเหตุการเกิดคือการสูดเอา ฝุ่นละอองขนาดเล็ก เข้าไปในปอดเกิดการอักเสบเมล็ดเลือดขาวกินฝุ่นพวกนั้นเข้าไปเพื่อรักษาร่างกายไม่สามารถย่อยได้จึงตาย  แล้วปล่อยเอนไซน์ที่เป็นน้ำย่อยมาย่อยผนังปอดอีกทีหนึ่ง ทำให้ถุงลมในปอดนับร้อยแตกเหลือเป็นถุงเดียว

ป้องกันฝุ่นจิ๋ว PM 2.5
รูปภาพจาก กรมอนามัย

วิธีป้องกัน PM 2.5

         1. งดกิจกรรมกลางแจ้ง

         2. จากมีความจำเป็นต้องออกไปที่แจ้ง ควรสวมหน้ากากอนามัย

                                -หน้ากาก N95 ป้องกันฝุ่น PM 2.5 ได้ประมาณ 90-95%

                                -หน้ากาก PM 2.5 สามารถป้องกันฝุ่น PM2.5 ได้ประมาณ 90%

                                -หากจำเป็นต้องใส่หน้ากากอนามัยทั่วไป แนะนำให้เพิ่มกระดาษทิชชู่ประมาณ 2 ชั้น จะสามารถป้องกันฝุ่นได้ประมาณ 90% แต่ควรใส่หน้ากากให้ถูกวิธีและกระชับกับหน้าของผู้สวมด้วย

       3. หรือใช้ เครื่องฟอกอากาศ ภายในบ้าน เป็นต้น

เรียบเรียงโดย นภัสวรรณ


ที่มา https://www.phyathai.com/article_detail/2884/th/PM2.5,%E0%B8%9D%E0%B8%B8%E0%B9%88%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B0%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%AD%E0%B8%87

http://www.pcd.go.th/info_serv/air_pm25.html

เรียบเรียง : อนุชา บุญใบ

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